Anti-parasites - Amenorrhea

RUE

Scientific name: Ruta graveolens

Ruta graveolens, commonly called rue, is a species of the Rutaceae family, native to southern Europe. It is usually cultivated as an ornamental garden plant, especially for its bluish leaves and its tolerance to dry soils and heat. It is also cultivated as a medicinal herb and condiment. Very branched sub-shrub perennial species, with a semi-woody to woody base. It reaches a height of between 70 to 100 cm.

 

The leaves, somewhat fleshy and glaucous green, are alternate, bi- or tripinnate; with oblong or spatulate leaflets. The inflorescence is a corymb, with small flowers with four or five yellow petals. The fruit is a capsule with five lobes. The entire plant gives off a strong pungent aroma. The taste of the leaves is slightly bitter.

 

Rue is used in the kitchen due to its light touch between spicy and bitter, although its aroma is used in different sauces or alcoholic mixtures (Grappa for example). It is widely used in Ethiopia as a coffee flavouring and in the blend of spices called berbere. It is also used in some places in Italy to make a special tomato sauce with olives and capers (along with marjoram, lovage and basil)

 

Medicine: Fresh leaves (recently cut) should be used; dried ones are a poor substitute. Rue is a plant with a high content of vitamin C and for this reason it is considered antiscorbutic, although it is not as suitable as lemon. It is usually used in infusion as an emmenagogue (menstruation stimulant), so consumption should be avoided during pregnancy. This plant should be used in small amounts due to its toxicity.

 

Applications:

-Amenorrhea 

-Gastrointestinal spasms 

-Parasites 

-Varicose veins 

-Hemorrhoids 

-Externally: to treat vitiligo and leukoderma.

-For eye conditions

-Stomach pains (gastralgias)

Phytophototoxicity: Effect of rue and sun exposure. Although it serves to repel insects when rue is applied to the skin it can produce a photoirritant effect in some cases. It contains several essential oils (furocoumarins and methoxypsoralen) and alkaloids (graveolin) that can cause extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet rays, with the appearance of blisters and skin lesions. Exposure to rue, or derived herbal preparations, can cause severe phytophotodermatitis resulting in burn-like blisters on the skin.

 

Chemical properties: (Ruta graveolens) essential oil in a clear glass vial A series of furanoacridones and two acridone alkaloids (arborinine and evoxanthine) can be isolated from Ruta graveolens.

It also contains coumarins and limonoids. Cell cultures produce umbelliferone, scopoletin, psoralen, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, rutamarin, and rutacultin (6,7-dimethoxy-3-(1,1-dimethylallyl)coumarin), and the alkaloids skimmianin, kokusaginin, 6-methoxydictamnin, and edulinin. (1-methyl-4-methoxy-3-[2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl]-2-quinolone).

 

The ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens leaves produces two furanocoumarins, one quinoline alkaloid and four quinolone alkaloids. Chloroform extracts of the root, stem, and leaf show the isolation of furanocoumarin chalepensin. The essential oil of R. graveolens contains two main constituents 2-Undecanone (46.8%) and nonan-2-one (18.8%)

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